Friday, 17 January 2014

Menstruation: comparison of conventional and homeopathic treatment


Menstruation problems are becoming increasingly common. Many women, especially over recent decades, have been introduced to homeopathy because of the success this gentle medical therapy has had in dealing with these problems. Problems with menstruation come in several different forms. Each one of these will be considered here, comparing conventional treatment with homeopathic treatment.

Dysmenorrhoea. Painful menstruation
Many women suffer pain during menstruation, ranging from slightly annoying to agonising. It can cause cramps, low back pain, aching legs, a heavy feeling in the abdomen and pelvis, digestive upsets, diarrhoea, headaches, weakness, depression and emotional stress.

Menorrhagia. An intensified and prolonged menstrual flow
Heavy periods are affecting an ever-increasing number of women, and one probable reason for this are the hormonal drugs, like HRT, and the oral contraceptive pill, which can play havoc with women’s hormonal balance.

Amenorrhoea. The absence or abnormal cessation of menstruation
Other than during during childhood, pregnancy, breastfeeding or the menopause, the absence of the menstrual period may indicate a problem with the reproductive system. Amenorrhea is often caused by hormonal disturbance, which can be several things, including diseases of the reproductive organs, weight loss, emotional stress or overexercising - a hormonal-based drugs.

Metrorrhagia. Irregular bleeding from uteris at times other than the menstrual period.

Leucorrheoe. A whitish, yellowish purulent discharge from the vagina


CONVENTIONAL MEDICAL TREATMENT OF MENSTRUAL PROBLEMS

1. Dysmenorrhoea
Painful menstruation

NHS Choices say that most women experience some form of period pain, that it is very common, and that most cases can be treated at home - with painkillers. 

The first choice are NSAIDs (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), such as ibuprofen (Nurofen)  and aspirin. It says that if these ddrugs are not effective, naproxen or mefenamic acid are recommended. NHS Choices say that these drugs are not suitable for everyone, for example, people with asthma, stomach, kidney or liver problems, pregnant or breastfeeding mother are mentioned. And the dangers of Aspirin for under 16 year old is  also alluded to. 


If these do not work, NHS Choices recommend other painkilling drugs are recommended. Paracetamol is mentioned, and described as having “very few side effects”. This again is not true, and anyone considering taking Paracetamol, for this or any other condition, should check on the damage it can cause

Codeine is also mentioned, but this drug can also cause serious harm to health, and there is the added danger of drug dependency if taken too long.

The next treatment recommended is the combined oral contraceptive pill. For many women, this could mean taking a drug that may well have caused their problems in the first instance! Contraceptive implants and injections are also mentioned.

In addition, NHS Choices mentions a number of sensible (and entirely safe) self-help measures, including exercise, the application of heat, a warm bath or shower, massage, relaxation techniques, transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation (or TENS machines).

2. Menorrhagia
An intensified and prolonged menstrual flow

NHS Choices say that medication is the main treatment for heavy periods, although surgery “may be used in some cases”. These are the treatments mentioned:

Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) - a small plastic (contraceptive) device inserted into the womb which slowly releases a hormone called progestogen. NHS Choices mentions the possible side effects as irregular bleeding lasting more than six months, breast tenderness, acne, and no periods at all.

Tranexamic acid tablets, with mention that the side effects of this drug being indigestion and diarrhoea.

NSAID painkilling drugs, such as mefenamic acid, naproxen and ibuprofen, are the next treatment recommended by NHS Choices - but only as ‘a second choice treatment’. Again, only indigestion and diarrhoea are mentioned as possible side effects of these drugs.

The Combined oral contraceptive pill is the next recommendation. This time the ‘common’ side effects mentioned are mood changes, nausea (feeling sick), fluid retention
and breast tenderness.

Then, oral norethisterone are mentioned, a ‘type of man-made progestogen (one of the female sex hormones)”. NHS Choices mentions “unpleasant side effects” for this drug, including, weight gain, breast tenderness and short-term acne, and state that they are not as effective as tranexamic acid.

Injections with medroxyprogesterone acetate is also mentioned, with common side effects being weight gain, irregular bleeding, the absence of periods, a delay in your ability to become pregnant for 6 to 12 months after stopping the injection, premenstrual symptoms, such as bloating, fluid retention and breast tenderness.

Next, on the NHS Choices list, is Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue which is also often given as an injection. It is said that this treatment is expensive “and may cause hormone abnormalities (hypogonadism) similar to the menopause, the effects of which include hot flushes, increased sweating and vaginal dryness”. It is apparently not a routine treatment but one that may be used while you await surgery!

Surgery
NHS Choices says that there are several types of operation that can be used to treat menorrhagia, and mentions uterine artery embolisation (UAE), myomectomy, endometrial ablation, and hysterectomy

3. Amenenorrhoea.
The absence or abnormal cessation of menstruation.

NHS Choices describes this as “having absent periods either means you have stopped having periods or haven’t started them by the time you are 14-16 years old”. Although not always a problem “absent periods can sometimes be a sign of an underlying medical condition”, and they mention polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), Hypothalamic Amenorrhoea, Hyperprolacctinaemia, and Premature Ovarian failure. The treatment for absent periods, NHS Choices says, will depend on the cause.

Treatments mentioned here include ‘wait and see’, the contraceptive pill, HRT, and medication to deal with over-active, or under-active thyroid conditions.

4. Metrorrhagia
Irregular bleeding from uteris at times other than the menstrual period.

NHS Choices says that irregular periods are common during puberty or just before the menopause and in these cases treatment is usually not necessary, but that you should see you doctor when:
  • you have very heavy periods, where you need to change your tampon or pad every hour or two, or you have to wear both a pad and a tampon
  • your periods last longer than seven days
  • there are fewer than three weeks between the start of one period and the next
  • you have bleeding or spotting between periods
  • you are bleeding after sex

NHS Choices then says that your treatment will depend on the reason for the irregular periods, and that this could involve: changing your method of contraception, intra-uterine device or contraceptive pill, treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome, treating thyroid disorders, counselling and stress management.


THE HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT OF MENSTRUAL PROBLEMS

Homeopathy has been blessed with a whole series of female homeopaths, particularly in the last 50 years, who have worked hard to develop remedy options available to women who are experiencing problems with menstruation - which seems to be an ever-increasing number of women.

Menstrual problems are not something to treat lightly, and although numerous remedy suggestion will follow, with very brief symptom descriptions for each one, anyone who has period problems is advised to consult with a qualified, registered homeopath.

The remedies have the advantage that unlike conventional medical treatment they have few, if any side effects.

1. Dysmenorrhoea
Painful menstruation

Homeopathic remedies can help soothe the pains of menstruation. The following remedies have been found useful in the treatment of painful periods, and have been taken from the True Star Health website:

Belladonna: Symptoms that are very intense and come and go suddenly, accompanied by a feeling of heat, often indicate a need for this remedy. The menstrual flow is typically bright red, profuse, and may have begun too early. Pain and cramping are worse from jarring and from touch, yet applying steady pressure often brings relief. Walking or bending over can make things worse, and sitting may be the most tolerable position. A woman who needs this remedy may feel restless and flushed, with pulsing or pounding sensations, and eyes that are sensitive to light.

Bovista: Women needing this remedy tend to have problems with puffiness and edema during times of menstrual stress, and can feel very awkward and clumsy. Pain may be felt in the pelvic region, often with soreness near the pubic bone. Menstrual flow increases at night (and may even be absent during the day). Diarrhea occurring at the time of the menstrual period is a strong indication for this remedy.

Caulophyllum: Women with a history of weak uterine tone and irregular periods may find some relief in this remedy. Intense discomfort during periods, with drawing pains in the thighs and legs as well as the pelvic area, are strong indications. The woman may experience a heavy flow of blood or other discharge. Stiffness or arthritis, especially in the finger-joints, may be seen in a person who needs this remedy.

Chamomilla: This remedy is indicated when the person’s mood and nerves are so sensitive that pains seem almost unbearable. Anger and irritability may be extreme (or pain and cramping may come on after the woman has been angry). The menstrual flow can be heavy, and the blood may look dark or clotted. Pain often extends from the pelvic area into the thighs, and may be worse at night. Heating pads or exposure to wind can aggravate the symptoms. Vigorous walking or moving around in other ways may help relieve the pain.

Cimicifuga (also called Actaea Racemosa): Cramping and pain that get worse as the flow increases, back and neck pain with muscle tension, and sharp pains like shocks that shoot upward, down the thighs, or across the pelvis, are all indications for this remedy. The woman is likely to be nervous, enthusiastic, and talkative by nature, yet feel pessimistic and fearful when unwell.

Cocculus: This remedy is indicated when a woman has cramping or pressing pain in the pelvic or abdominal region, along with weakness or dizziness. She may be inclined toward headaches or nausea, and parts of her body can feel numb or hollow. Feeling worse from standing up or from any kind of exertion and feeling better from lying down and sleeping are typical. (Cocculus is often indicated when a person has not been sleeping well and then feels weak or ill.)

Colocynthis: Sharp, cutting, tearing pains that make the person double over bring this remedy to mind. Cramping may be felt throughout the pelvic area or be focused near the ovaries. The woman feels restless from the pain, but lying down and keeping hard pressure and warmth on the area improve things. This remedy is often indicated if problems are worsened by emotional upsets, especially after feeling anger or suppressing it.

Lachesis: Women who have intense discomfort and tension before the menstrual period begins and feel much better when the flow is established may benefit from this remedy. Symptoms include a bearing-down sensation in the pelvis, flushes of heat, headache, and an inability to tolerate the touch of clothing around the waist or neck. A person who needs this remedy may feel “like a pressure cooker”: intense and passionate, needing an outlet both physically and emotionally.

Lilium tigrinum: Indications for this remedy include great premenstrual irritability (making other people “walk on eggs”) and cramping pain with a bearing-down feeling during periods. The woman may feel as if her uterus is pushing out, and may need to sit a lot or cross her legs. She is likely to feel worse from strong emotions or excitement and be better from fresh air.

Magnesia phosphorica: Painful cramps and pain in the pelvic region that are relieved by pressure and warmth often respond to this remedy. Periods may start too early, often with a dark or stringy discharge, and pain is usually worse on the right side of the body. The woman is sensitive and inclined toward “nerve pain”—feeling worse from being cold and also worse at night.

Nux vomica: This remedy may be indicated when a woman has irregular menstrual periods with constricting pains that can extend to the rectum or the area above the tailbone. The woman tends to be impatient, irritable, and easily offended. Chilliness and constipation are also common. Mental strain, anger, physical exertion, stimulants, strong foods, and alcohol are likely to make things worse. Warmth and rest often help.

Pulsatilla: Delayed or suppressed menstrual flow accompanied by nausea or faintness suggests the use of this remedy. Getting too warm or being in a stuffy room make things worse. Cramping pain with a bearing-down feeling, either with scanty flow or thick, dark, clotted discharge, can also occur—symptoms that are changeable often point to Pulsatilla. The woman’s moods are changeable as well, and a desire for attention and sympathy, along with a sensitive (even tearful) emotional state are typical. This remedy is indicated during many conditions involving hormonal changes and is often helpful to girls who have recently started having periods.

Sepia: Indications for this remedy include painful, late, or suppressed menstruation, sometimes with a feeling that the pelvic floor is weak or as if the uterus is sagging. The woman may feel irritable, dragged out, and sad—losing interest temporarily in marital and family interactions, wanting to be left alone. Dampness, perspiring, and doing housework may aggravate the symptoms. Warmth and exercise, especially dancing, often brighten the woman’s outlook and restore some energy.

Veratrum album: Menstrual periods with a very heavy flow and cramping, along with feeling of exhaustion, chilliness, and even vomiting and diarrhea, are indications for this remedy. The periods may start too early and go on too long. Discomfort is often worse at night and also in wet, cold weather. Warm drinks, exercise, or moving the bowels may make things worse. Small meals, cold drinks, and wrapping up in warm clothes or covers will tend to bring relief.

2. Menorrhagia
An intensified and prolonged menstrual flow

This is a common problem for many women, often an inconvenient and draining process. The following remedies have been found useful in the treatment of heavy periods, taken from the True Star Health website.

Bovista: Premenstrual problems with puffiness in the extremities, fluid retention, and a bloated feeling often indicate a need for this remedy. The woman may feel very awkward and clumsy, and may constantly be dropping things because of swollen-feeling hands. Diarrhea occurring around the time of the menstrual period strongly indicates this remedy.

Calcarea carbonica: PMS with fatigue, anxiety, and a feeling of being overwhelmed suggest a need for this remedy. The woman may have problems with water-retention and weight gain, tender breasts, digestive upsets, and headaches. Periods often come too early and last too long, sometimes with a flow of bright red blood. A general feeling of chilliness, with clammy hands and feet, and cravings for sweets and eggs are other indications for Calcarea.

Caulophyllum: This remedy is often helpful to women with a history of irregular periods, difficulty becoming pregnant, or slow childbirth due to weak muscle tone of the uterus. Symptoms include discomfort during periods and a heavy flow of blood or other discharge. Drawing pains may be felt in the pelvic region, thighs, and legs. Stiffness or arthritis, especially in the finger-joints, often is seen when this remedy is needed.

Chamomilla: A woman likely to respond to this remedy is angry, irritable, and hypersensitive to pain. Cramping may come on, or be intensified, because of emotional upset. Flow can be very heavy, and the blood may look dark or clotted. Problems are often worse at night. Heating pads or exposure to wind may aggravate the symptoms, and motion (such as rocking or brisk walking) may help to reduce the tension and discomfort.

Cimicifuga (also called Actaea Racemosa): This remedy can be helpful for irregular and painful periods, with shooting pains that go down the hips and thighs, or cramps similar to labor-pains that are felt in the pelvic area. Headache with pain and stiffness in the neck and back will often occur with PMS. The woman is likely to be intense and talkative, becoming agitated, fearful, and depressed before a menstrual period.

Kreosotum: Headache, nausea, and a heavy flow that makes the genitals and surrounding skin feel irritated and swollen are indications for this remedy. Kreosotum is often indicated for women with PMS who feel irritable and uncomfortable, and have a strong dislike of sexual activity.

Lachesis: Women who need this remedy are usually intense, with a tremendous need for an outlet, both physically and mentally. Symptoms of PMS include congestion, headaches, flushing, surges of heat, and an intense outspoken irritability—often with strong feelings of suspicion or jealousy. When the flow arrives, it may be heavy, but brings relief of tension. Intolerance of restrictive clothing around the waist or neck is another indication for Lachesis.

Lilium tigrinum: This remedy may be helpful if a woman is inclined toward rage during PMS, makes other people “walk on eggs,” and is extremely sensitive and irritable. Pressure in the rectum and in the pelvic region, with a sensation that the uterus is pushing out, may make her feel a frequent need to sit or cross her legs. Emotions and excitement aggravate the symptoms, and fresh air will often bring relief.

Lycopodium: PMS with a craving for sweets and a ravenous appetite (sometimes a bulimic tendency) suggests a need for this remedy. Digestive upsets with abdominal bloating and flatulence are often seen, with the person feeling worst in the late afternoon and evening. Menstrual periods may be delayed, followed by a heavy flow that goes on for extra days. A woman who needs this remedy often wears a worried look and lacks self-confidence—although she may be irritable and bossy to pets and family members. A desire to be alone, but with someone in the other room, is another indication for Lycopodium.

Natrum muriaticum: A person who needs this remedy usually seems reserved to others, but is deeply emotional inside. She may feel extremely sad and lonely, but gets affronted or angry if others try to console her or sympathize. Depression, anger over minor things, and a need to be alone to cry are often seen when Natrum mur is needed. Menstrual problems can be accompanied by migraines, or a backache that feels better from lying on something hard or pushing a solid object against the painful place. A craving for salt, strong thirst, and a tendency to feel worse from being in the sun are other indications for this remedy.

Nux vomica: When a woman with PMS is extremely impatient, pushy, and intolerant, this remedy may be of use. Uncomfortable, irregular menstrual periods can be experienced, often with a nagging urge to move the bowels before the flow begins. Constipation is common, and constricting pains may extend to the rectum or tailbone region. Anger, mental strain, physical exertion, and overindulgence in coffee, alcohol, or food can aggravate the problems. The woman often feels chilly and improves from warmth and rest.

Pulsatilla: This remedy can be helpful during many conditions involving hormonal changes and is often helpful to girls who have recently started having periods. PMS with irritability, moodiness, and weepiness is typical. Delay or suppression of the menstrual flow can be accompanied by queasy feelings, nausea, and faintness. Being too warm or in a stuffy room makes things worse, and fresh air can bring relief. The timing, amount, and nature of the menstrual flow are changeable—as are the woman’s moods—when Pulsatilla is the remedy. The woman usually is emotional and needy, wanting a lot of attention and comforting.

Sepia: A woman who needs this remedy with PMS feels weary and dragged-out, wanting others (especially family members) to keep their distance. She often feels taken for granted and overworked, becoming irritable or sarcastic if demands are made. Late periods or scanty flow with a feeling that the pelvic floor is weak, or as if the uterus is sagging, often indicates a need for Sepia. Dampness and perspiring may aggravate the symptoms. Warmth and exercise, especially dancing, often restore some energy and brighten up the her mood.

Veratrum album: Menstrual periods with very heavy flow and cramping, with a feeling of exhaustion and icy coldness suggest a need for this remedy. Vomiting and diarrhea are often seen. Periods may start too early and go on too long. The woman feels worse at night, from exercise, and from drinking things that are warm. Cold drinks, small meals, and wrapping up in warm clothes or covers may help to bring improvement.

3. Amenorrhoea.
The absence or abnormal cessation of menstruation

These remedies have been found to be particularly useful with irregular periods, and have been described on the Hpathy website.

Pulsatilla. Comes first to mind as the homeopathic remedy for menstrual suppression. It is indicated where the menses flow by fits and starts, or when the suppression is due to wetting of the feet; also, in delayed first menses in chlorotic girls. It must be carefully distinguished from Dulcamara, which has menses suppressed from getting the feet wet, but whose temperament is not that of Pulsatilla. Bayes remarks that in amenorrhoea with anaemia "great judgment is required in the selection of the dilution, which ought to vary from the 30th to the 1st, according to the sensitiveness of the patient, " Jahr ranks Sulphur with Pulsatilla for insufficient pale menstruation. The Pulsatilla patient is disinclined to exertion, with poor appetite and longing for acids,is apt to faint easily and suffers from a tremulous anxiety. Senecio is useful also in amenorrhoea with chlorosis.

Calcarea carbonic. This remedy is also, like Pulsatilla, indicated in amenorrhoea when the first menses are delayed, but with Calcarea there is apt to result congestion to the head or chest, giving rise to lung troubles. It is typically indicated in fleshy, scrofulous girls with fair complexion, perspiring easily about the head and subject to acidity of the stomach. Menstrual suppression in those decidedly scrofulous, or with lung affection, especially indicates Calcarea. Belladonna has menstrual suppression with congestion to the head, but its chief use is in amenorrhoea appearing suddenly due to cold, with bearing down and throbbing pains in the hypogastrium and painful urination. Gelsemium. Here the drowsy apathetic state is prominent and neuralgic pains of the head and face accompany. Glonoine. Intense throbbing of head and albuminous urine occurring when the menses do not appear. It will act promptly if at all. If the menses are suppressed from fright, Aconite, Actea spicata and Lycopodium must be thought of. Opium and Veratrum also have this symptoms. Further symptoms indicating Calcarea in amenorrhoea are palpitation of the heart, dyspnoea worse ascending, cold damp feet, etc. Lilium tigrinum. Of use when amenorrhoea causes, by reflex action, heart symptoms.

Ferrum metallicum. This is another useful remedy for delayed first menses where there is debility, languor, palpitation, sickly complexion and puffiness about the ankles. It corresponds to weakly, chlorotic women with flushed face, or pale and livid with blue margins about the eyes. It is especially useful in those who have been dosed with quinine and nervines.

Sepia. Insufficient or tardy menstruation occurring in the feeble and debilitated, those of dark complexion, delicate skin and who are sensitive to all impressions. In delay of first menses where a leucorrhoea occurs in their stead with determination of blood to the chest and pale face, the remedy is well indicated. Bryonia has nosebleed instead of menses frequently accompanied with bursting headache, and Phosphorus has haemoptysis and haematemesis instead of menses.Lachesis should not be forgotten here. Nosebleed and headache relieved by menstrual flow.

Graphites. Here, when the menses are suppressed, delayed or scanty, and accompanied with obstinate constipation, and indurated ovaries, it comes in especially well after Pulsatilla. It holds the same relation to the menopause that Pulsatilla does to puberty and youth. A sallow complexion, frequent paroxysms of headache, felling of abdominal emptiness and ball like constipation, which are marked Sepia symptoms, will easily distinguish this remedy. Cimicifuga. Cowperthwaite praises this remedy highly in amenorrhoea, giving it when no special indication are present, in nervous women subject to rheumatism or arthritic attacks, with aggravation of mental symptoms when the menses should appear.

4. Metrorrhagia
Irregular bleeding from uteris at times other than the menstrual period.


Sepia: Bearing down sensation as if everything would escape through vulva; must cross limbs to prevent protrusion or press against vulva. Menses too late and scanty, irregular; exceptionally menses may be early and profuse; sharp clutching pains. Violent stitches upward in the vagina from uterus to umbilicus. Vagina painful, especially on coition. Hot Flashes at menopause with weakness and perspiration. Sepia patient dreads to alone, weeps when telling her complaint, irritable, very sad and Indifferent to those loved most.

Lachesis: Lachesis has hemorrhagic tendency. Very important during the climacteric. Cannot bear anything tight anywhere. Climacteric troubles, palpitation, flashes of heat, haemorrhages, vertex headache, fainting spells worse pressure of clothes. Menses too short, too feeble; pains all relieved by the flow. Left ovary very painful and swollen, indurated. Great loquacity. Jealous.

Phosphorus: Haemorrhage from uterus between periods. Menses too early and scanty- not profuse but last too long.Weeps before menses. Frequent and profuse haemorrhages from uterus caused by cancerous affection. Weakness, blue circles around eyes and anxiety after menses. Infertility.

Calcarea Carbonica: Menses too early, too profuse, too long with vertigo, toothache and cold,damp feet. Least excitement causes haemorrhage from uterus.Cutting pains in uterus during menstruation. Before menses, headache, colic, chilliness and leucorrhea. Infertility with copious menses. Increased menstruation about external genitals.

Pulsatilla: Menses too late, scanty, thick, dark, clotted, changeable, intermittent.Menses suppressed from wet feet, nervous debility or anaemia. Chilliness, nausea, downward pressure, painful with intermittent menstrual flow. Weeps when telling complaints, changeable, contradictory. Patient seeks the open air and always feel better there. Symptoms ever changing. Thirstless, peevish and chilly.

Ammonium Carb: Menses too frequent, profuse, early, copious, clotted, black.Menses preceded by gripping colic, black and acrid blood. Cholera like symptoms at the commencement of menstruation.

Lycopodium: Menses too late, last too long, too profuse. Coition painful, dry vagina. Right ovarian pain. Discharge of blood from genitals during stool. Melancholy; afraid to be alone.Little things annoy. Headstrong and haughty when sick.

Ambra Grisea: Thin, scrawny women. Adapted to hysterical subjects. Anaemic and sleepless. Weakness,coldness and numbness,usually of single parts, fingers, arms etc. Music aggravates symptoms. Menses too early. Discharge of blood between periods, bleeding at every little accident. Profuse,bluish leucorrhea. Itching of pudendum with soreness and swelling. Worse at night.

Arsenicum Album: Arsenic is useful in persistent haemorrhages i.e. metrorrhagia or menorrhagia, of a low type depending upon some degeneration in the organ affected. Burning pains with haemorrhage. Metrorrhagia of dark blood and increased sexual desire. Main affection in right ovary with marked burning, tensive pains and restlessness which is somewhat relieved by constantly moving the feet. Menstrual colic better from warm applications.

Belladonna: Menses are early,copious, bright red and attended with cramp-like tearing pain in the back, arms etc; throbbing headache; most intensely painful congestive dysmenorrhea; bearing down; cutting pain from behind forward or vice versa; menstrual flow offensive; lochia offensive. Uterine haemorrhage; blood pours out and feels hot; uterine haemorrhage with bearing down in the back.

Bovista: Menses too early and profuse; worse at night. Diarrhoea before and during menses. Cannot wear tight clothing around the waist. Traces of blood between menses. Soreness of pubis during menses. Metrorrhagia. Leucorrhea acrid, thick, tough, greenish follows menses. Uterine haemorrhage when the uterus is engorged, particularly when there is bleeding between menses from any little over-exertion. Here it is exactly like Ambra Grisea, but menstrual flow of Bovista occurs chiefly or only at night or early in the morning.

Cantharides: Puerperal metritis with inflammation of bladder. Menses too early and too profuse; black swelling of vulva with irritation. Constant discharge from uterus; worse false step. Burning pain in ovaries. Retained placenta with painful urination.

Carbo Animalis: Menses too early, frequent, long lasting, followed by great exhaustion, so weak can hardly speak. Menstrual flow only in morning. Burning in vagina and labia. Cancer of uterus.

Carbo Veg: Premature, too copious menses, pale blood. Continuous dark haemorrhage. Patient wants to be fanned, anaemic, skin cool and bluish, pulse rapid and weak. Burning pains across the sacrum and lower portion of the spine with haemorrhage. Carbo veg is torpid, sluggish.

Cinchona Officinalis: Menses too early, profuse with pain. Leucorrhea bloody. Bleeding is dark and clotted. Haemorrhage is so profuse it produce condition of collapse, cool face, gasping for breath, patient demands to be fanned.

Erigeron Canadensis: Haemorrhage from uterus with painful micturition. Profuse bright red blood. Pain in left ovary and hip. Metrorrhagia with violent irritation of rectum and bladder; and prolapse of uterus. Menorrhagia. Bloody lochia returns after least motion, comes in gushes; between periods, leucorrhea with urinary irritation; pregnant women with “weak uterus”, a bloody discharge on slight exertion. Erigeron is indicated in haemorrhages from uterus with painful urination. Haemorrhage comes in fits and starts; it comes with a sudden gush and then stops again.

Ferrum Metallicum:- Anaemic women with fiery red face whose menses remit a day or two and then return. Menses too early, too profuse, last too long; pale, watery. Sensitive vagina. Discharge of long pieces from uterus. Tendency to abortion. Prolapse of vagina.
Flow of bright red blood often mixed with coagula, associated with great deal of flushing.

Hamamelis Virginica: Menses dark, profuse, with soreness in abdomen. Bruised soreness of affected parts.Metrorrhagia occurring midway between menstrual periods. Inter menstrual pain.Vicarious menstruation. Ovarian congestion with neuralgia; feel very sore.Uterine haemorrhage, bearing down pain in back. Vagina very tender. Profuse leucorrhea. Vaginismus, ovaritis, soreness over whole abdomen. The flow is dark and rather passive and there is a feeling of soreness in the affected area.

Ipecacuanha: Hemorrhage bright red and profuse. Uterine haemorrhage profuse, bright red, gushing with nausea. Pain from naval to uterus. Menses too early and too profuse.

Millefolium: Invaluable remedy for various types of haemorrhages; blood bright red. Menses early, profuse, protracted. Hemorrhage bright red, fluid. Millefolium is suited for a profuse, bright red flow , unattended with pain.

Nux Vomica: Menses too early, lasts too long; always irregular, blood black with faint spells. Prolpase of uterus. Dysmenorrea with pain in sacrum and constant urging to stool.
Metrorrhagia with sensation as if bowels wanted to move.

Sabina: Menses bright red, clotted and worse from any motion. Haemorrhage is attended with pain extending from the pubes through to the sacrum and with pains in the legs. Uterine pains extend to thighs. Discharge of blood between periods with sexual excitement. Retained placenta; intense after pains. Menorrhagia in women who aborted readily. Inflammation of ovaries and uterus after abortion. Pain from sacrum to pubis and from below upwards shooting up in the vagina.

Sanguinaria Can: Metrorrhagia occurring at the climacteric age. Bleeding is of bright red, clotted and frequently offensive. Metrorrhagia with flushes of heat and with sick headache.

Secale Cornutum: Haemorrhages; continued oozing; thin, fetid, watery black blood. Whole body is pervaded by a sense of great heat so all the Secale patients are better from cold. Menses irregular, copious, dark; continuous oozing of watery blood until next period.
The flow of blood is passive; it is attended with tingling in the limbs. Although the surface of the body is cold, the patient persistently expresses her desire to be uncovered.

Trillium Pendulum: A general hemorrhagic medicine with great faintness and dizziness.
Uterine haemorrhage with sensation as though hips and back were falling to pieces; better by tight bandages. Gushing of bright blood on least movement. Metrorrhagia at climacteric. Haemorrhage from fibroids. Prolapse with great bearing down. Blood is bright red, profuse and is attended by a faint feeling in the epigastrium, pain in back, coldness of extremities, prostration and rapid, feeble pulse.

Ustilago Maydis: Vicarious menstruation. Profuse menstruation after miscarriage; discharge of blood from slightest provocation; bright red; partly clotted. Menorrhagia at climacteric. Oozing of dark blood, clotted, forming long black strings. Cervix bleed easily.
Ovaries burn, painful and swelled. Uterine haemorrhage is partly fluid and partly clotted, bright red.

5. Leucorrheoe
A whitish, yellowish purulent discharge from the vagina


Calcarea carbonica. Indicated by its general symptoms, and these are always the more important in this affection. More prominent of these are morning hunger, acidity of the stomach, cold and damp feet. It corresponds especially to scrofulous persons with enlarged cervical glands. The leucorrhoea is profuse, milky, persistent or yellow and accompanied by itching and burning. It suits leucorrhoea in infants and young girls often recurring before puberty, leucorrhoea before menses or in recurring attacks between the menses. Calcarea phosphorica is a fine remedy in the scrofulous diathesis; it has a profuse milky bland leucorrhoea. Sulphur is another remedy suitable to scrofulous subjects; it has a leucorrhoea which makes the parts sore. It is rather indicated by the general than the local symptoms. Caulophyllum has leucorrhoea in little girls which is very profuse and weakens the child very much. Cimicifuga. Dr. Dyce Brown praises this remedy in leucorrhoea, especially in nervous, neuralgic and hyperaesthetic patients.

Pulsatilla. Produces a cures a milky leucorrhoea which becomes watery, acrid and burning from being retained in the vagina. It is a mucous, thick, creamy, white leucorrhoea sometimes replacing menses, with chilliness, disposition to lie down and lowness of spirits. It corresponds to a disposition to leucorrhoea and suits leucorrhoea in chlorotic subjects. Helonin. Southwick recommends this remedy in the 1X or 2X trituration for profuse,yellow, thick leucorrhoea with some irritation and itching. In anaemic sallow patient with much prostration and general debility, worse from slight colds and exertion, it is a most useful remedy.

Sepia. Cures a leucorrhoea which is yellowish green colour, somewhat offensive and often excoriating, due to pelvic congestion of a passive type. It is milky, worse before menses with bearing down; there are pains in the abdomen and pruritus. The patient has a sallow, pimply face, and it is most suitable to those of dark complexion who are feeble and debilitated and who have a sensation of emptiness at the pit of the stomach. It leads all other remedies in leucorrhoea of little girls, though Mercurius pro-iodide should not be forgotten if the discharge be yellow. Lilium tigrinum has an excoriating, watery, yellowish or yellowish brown leucorrhoea, which is profuse and is accompanied by a depression of spirits and bearing down in pelvic region. Hydrastis suits a tenacious,thick, ropy leucorrhoea with erosion of the cervix; a mucous leucorrhoea which is profuse and debilitating corresponds to Hydrastis. Kali bichromicum has a yellow, ropy, stringy leucorrhoea. It is suitable to fat, light-haired persons.

Kreasote. Few medicines have the same power in leucorrhoea as Kreasote. It cures a profuse watery, sometimes a yellowish leucorrhoea. The acridity is marked; it causes excoriating of the parts which come in contact with it, causes soreness and smarting and red spots and itching on the vulva, always with great debility; leucorrhoea preceding menses. It is so acrid that it causes the pudenda and thighs to swell and itch. Nitric acid. Highly recommended by Jahr in a corrosive leucorrhoea; it being one of our best remedies, and one too often neglected. In fact, all of our remedies are prone to be neglected in leucorrhoea, and their place taken by far less efficient local applications. Nitric acid suits a greenish, foetid, obstinate leucorrhoea; the presence of fig warts and condylomata will further indicate the remedy. Platinum. Periodical, thin watery leucorrhoea with very sensitive organs. Albuminous leucorrhoea in the daytime. Iodine has an acrid,corrosive leucorrhoea accompanied by right ovarian inflammation.

Borax. Suits a clear, copious and albuminous leucorrhoea having an unnatural heat to it. Leucorrhoea midway between menses with great nervousness, white as starch, perfectly bland without pain. Dr. Hughes recommends this remedy in the 2X trituration for a chronic vaginal catarrh, which is sometimes mistaken for uterine leucorrhoea. Graphites cures a leucorrhoea associated with pains in the lower abdomen and weakness of back in pale young girls. It is profuse, very thin, white mucus, occurs in gushes; the menses are delayed, scanty and pale. Leucorrhoea more profuse in morning when rising, especially indicates Graphites.

Alumina. Leucorrhoea in chlorotic girls which is transparent or of yellow mucus, which is very profuse and ropy, and greatly exhausting, as it is very rich in albumen. It occurs chiefly in the daytime; the great profuseness is its characteristic. It is apt to be acrid. Causticum. Leucorrhoea occurring chiefly at night.

Mercurius. Acrid excoriating leucorrhoea smarting and burning, swelling of external genital organs. Purulent greenish yellow leucorrhoea worse at night; heat, tenderness and pain involving nabothian glands, form good indication for Mercurius. Scrofulous and syphilitic subjects with yellow and thick leucorrhoea also indicate the remedy.

Belladonna.  Corresponds to recent or acute attacks of leucorrhoea dependent upon pelvic inflammation and congestion; oftentimes bearing down in pelvis. Thin, odourless, bland leucorrhoea. Sensitive cervix and bearing down pains. Stannum. Profuse bland leucorrhoea, yellowish, with great debility, backache; patients are weakened and sallow.

Arsenicum. Leucorrohoea from exhausting diseases; cancer, etc. It is best suited to weak persons, old women, especially the chronic form with much weakness; the discharge is acrid, corrosive and yellow. Dictamnus was one of Hahnemann's remedies for leucorrhoea. It is of tenacious mucus, attended with painful erosions of the pudendum and itching of the anus. Secale. Brownish and offensive leucorrhoea, with metrorrhagia, especially in thin scrawny women who suffer from excessive menstruation and prolapsus.


RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIALS (RCTs)

The following studies have been undertaken on the homeopathic treatment of menstrual problems. 

Homeopathic treatment of patients with Dysmenorrhea: a prospective observational study with a 2 year follow up. 128 women with dysmenorrhea were treated, and diagnoses and complaint severity improved markedly. The conclusion of the study was that “patients with dysmenorrhea improved under homeopathic treatment. Controlled studies should investigate efficacy and effectiveness”.

The efficacy of the complex medication Phyto-Hypophyson L in female, hormone-related sterility. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical double-blind study.
Bergmann J, Luft B, Boehmann S, Runnebaum B, Gerhard I 2000
Forschende Komplement√§rmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 7:190–199.

Effects of homeopathic treatment in women with premenstrual syndrome: a pilot study.
Yakir M, Kreitler S, Brzezinski A, Vithoulkas G, Oberbaum M, Bentwich Z 2001

British Homeopathic Journal, 90:148–153.